# Kubernetes Ingress Controller

Use Pomerium as a first-class secure-by-default Ingress Controller. The Pomerium Ingress Controller enables workflows more native to Kubernetes environments, such as Git-Ops style actions based on pull requests. Dynamically provision routes from Ingress resources and set policy based on annotations. By defining routes as Ingress resources you can independently create and remove them from Pomerium's configuration.

# Prerequisites

# System Requirements

# Limitations

WARNING

Only one Ingress Controller instance is supported per Pomerium cluster.

# Installation

# Helm

Our instructions for Installing Pomerium Using Helm includes the Ingress Controller as part of the documented configuration. You can confirm by looking for this line in pomerium-values.yaml:

ingressController:
  enabled: true

# Docker Image

You may deploy the Ingress controller from your own manifests by using the pomerium/ingress-controller docker image.

# Configuration

Flag Description
--databroker-service-url The databroker service url
--databroker-tls-ca base64 encoded TLS CA
--databroker-tls-ca-file TLS CA file path for the databroker connection connection
--health-probe-bind-address The address the probe endpoint binds to. (default ":8081")
--metrics-bind-address The address the metric endpoint binds to. (default ":8080")
--name IngressClass controller name (default "pomerium.io/ingress-controller")
--namespaces Namespaces to watch, omit to watch all namespaces
--prefix Ingress annotation prefix (default "ingress.pomerium.io")
--shared-secret base64 encoded shared secret for communicating with databroker
--update-status-from-service Update ingress status from given service status (pomerium-proxy)

The helm chart exposes a subset of these flags for appropriate customization.

# Usage

# Defining Routes

If you've tested Pomerium using the all-in-one binary, you're probably familiar with configuring routes in Pomerium's config.yaml. When using the Pomerium Ingress Controller, each route is defined as an Ingress resource in the Kubernetes API.

The Ingress Controller will monitor Ingress resources in the cluster, creating a Pomerium route definition for each one. Policy and other configuration options for the route are set by using annotations starting with ingress.pomerium.io/.

Example:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  annotations:
    ingress.pomerium.io/policy: '[{"allow":{"and":[{"email":{"is":"user@yourdomain.com"}}]}}]' # This can also be a yaml block quote
spec:
  rules:
  - host: hello.localhost.pomerium.io
    http:
      paths:
      - backend:
          service:
            name: nginx-hello
            port:
              name: http
        path: /
        pathType: Prefix

Becomes:

routes:
  - from: https://hello.localhost.pomerium.io
    to: http://nginx-hello.default.svc.cluster.local
    policy:
    - allow:
        and:
          - email:
              is: user@yourdomain.com
Write Policies in YAML

You can also define a route's policies using YAML:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: name
  annotations:
    ingress.pomerium.io/policy: |
      - allow:
          or:
            - domain:
                is: pomerium.com

# Supported Annotations

Most configuration keys in non-Kubernetes deployments can be specified as annotation in an Ingress Resource definition. The format is ingress.pomerium.io/${OPTION_NAME}. The expandable list below contains the annotations available, which behave as described in our reference documentation (with links to the appropriate reference documentation).

Pomerium-Standard Annotations

The remaining annotations are specific to or behave differently than they do when using Pomerium without the Ingress Controller:

Annotation Description
ingress.pomerium.io/tls_custom_ca_secret Name of Kubernetes tls Secret containing a custom CA certificate for the upstream.
ingress.pomerium.io/tls_client_secret Name of Kubernetes tls Secret containing a client certificate for connecting to the upstream.
ingress.pomerium.io/tls_downstream_client_ca_secret Name of Kubernetes tls Secret containing a Client CA for validating downstream clients.
ingress.pomerium.io/secure_upstream When set to "true", use https when connecting to the upstream endpoint.
ingress.pomerium.io/path_regex When set to "true" enables path regex matching. See the Regular Expressions Path Matching section for more information.
ingress.pomerium.io/service_proxy_upstream When set to "true" forces Pomerium to connect to upstreams through the k8s service proxy, and not individual endpoints.
This is useful when deploying Pomerium inside a service mesh.

TIP

Every value for the annotations above must be in string format.

# cert-manager Integration

Pomerium Ingress Controller can use cert-manager (opens new window) to automatically provision certificates. These may come from the ingress-shim (opens new window) or explicitly configured Certificate resources (opens new window).

To use HTTP01 Challenges (opens new window) with your Issuer (opens new window), configure the solver class to match the Ingress Controller. The Ingress Controller will automatically configure policy to facilitate the HTTP01 challenge:

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Issuer
metadata:
  name: example-issuer
spec:
  acme:
    server: https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
    privateKeySecretRef:
      name: example-issuer-account-key
    solvers:
    - http01:
       ingress:
         class: pomerium

An example of using the ingress-shim (opens new window) with an Ingress resource managed by Pomerium:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  annotations:
    cert-manager.io/issuer: example-issuer
    ingress.pomerium.io/policy: '[{"allow":{"and":[{"email":{"is":"user@exampledomain.com"}}]}}]'
  name: example
spec:
  ingressClassName: pomerium
  rules:
  - host: example.localhost.pomerium.io
    http:
      paths:
      - backend:
          service:
            name: example
            port:
              name: http
        path: /
        pathType: Prefix
  tls:
  - hosts:
    - example.localhost.pomerium.io
    secretName: example-tls

# HTTPS endpoints

The Ingress spec assumes that all communications to the upstream service is sent in plaintext. For more information, see the TLS (opens new window) section of the Ingress API documentation. Pomerium supports HTTPS communication with upstream endpoints, including mTLS.

Annotate your Ingress with

ingress.pomerium.io/secure_upstream: true

Additional TLS certificates may be supplied by creating a Kubernetes secret(s) in the same namespaces as the Ingress resource. Please note that we do not support file paths or embedded secret references.

Please note that the referenced tls_client_secret must be a TLS Kubernetes secret (opens new window). tls_custom_ca_secret and tls_downstream_client_ca_secret must contain ca.crt containing a .PEM encoded (base64-encoded DER format) public certificate.

# External services

You may refer to external services by defining a Service (opens new window) with externalName.

I.e. if you have https://my-existing-service.corp.com:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: external
spec:
  type: ExternalName
  externalName: "my-existing-service.corp.com"
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      name: https
      port: 443
---
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: external
  annotations:
    cert-manager.io/cluster-issuer: letsencrypt-prod-http
    ingress.pomerium.io/secure_upstream: "true"
    ingress.pomerium.io/policy: |
      - allow:
          and:
            - domain:
                is: pomerium.com
spec:
  ingressClassName: pomerium
  tls:
    - hosts:
        - "external.localhost.pomerium.io"
      secretName: external-localhost-pomerium.io
  rules:
    - host: "external.localhost.pomerium.io"
      http:
        paths:
          - path: /
            pathType: Prefix
            backend:
              service:
                name: external
                port:
                  name: https

# Regular Expressions Path Matching

You can use a re2 regular expression (opens new window) To create an Ingress that matches multiple paths.

  1. Set the path_regex annotation to "true"
  2. Set pathType to ImplementationSpecific
  3. Set path to an re2 expression matching the full path. It must include the ^/ prefix and $ suffix. Any query strings should be removed.

TIP

Check out this example expression (opens new window) at regex101.com (opens new window) for a more detailed explanation and example paths, both matching and not.

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  annotations:
    cert-manager.io/issuer: example-issuer
    ingress.pomerium.io/allowed_domains: '["exampledomain.com"]'
    ingress.pomerium.io/path_regex: "true"
  name: example
spec:
  ingressClassName: pomerium
  rules:
  - host: example.localhost.pomerium.io
    http:
      paths:
      - backend:
          service:
            name: example
            port:
              name: http
        path: ^/(admin|superuser)/.*$
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
  tls:
  - hosts:
    - example.localhost.pomerium.io
    secretName: example-tls

# Troubleshooting

# View Event History

Pomerium Ingress Controller will add events to the Ingress objects as it processes them.

kubectl describe ingress/my-ingress
Events:
  Type    Reason   Age   From              Message
  ----    ------   ----  ----              -------
  Normal  Updated  18s   pomerium-ingress  updated pomerium configuration

If an error occurs, it may be reflected in the events:

Events:
  Type     Reason       Age                 From              Message
  ----     ------       ----                ----              -------
  Normal   Updated      5m53s               pomerium-ingress  updated pomerium configuration
  Warning  UpdateError  3s                  pomerium-ingress  upsert routes: parsing ingress: annotations: applying policy annotations: parsing policy: invalid rules in policy: unsupported conditional "maybe", only and, or, not, nor and action are allowed

# HSTS

If your domain has HSTS (opens new window) enabled and you visit an endpoint while Pomerium is using the self-signed bootstrap certificate or a LetsEncrypt staging certificate (before cert-manager has provisioned a production certificate), the untrusted certificate may be pinned in your browser and would need to be reset. See this article (opens new window) for more information.

# More Information

For more information on the Pomerium Ingress Controller or the Kubernetes concepts discussed, see: